在人类事务发展的过程中,当一个民族必须,解除同另一,个民族的★联系☆lián xì★,并按照★自然☆zì rán★法则和上帝的旨意,以独立平等的身份立于★世界☆shì jiè★列国,之林时,出于对人类舆论的,尊重,必须把驱使他们独立的原因予以宣布,。
★我们☆wǒ men★认为下述,真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们,若干不可让与,的,权利,其中★包括☆bāo kuò★生存权,自由权和追求幸福的权利。,为了,保障★这些☆zhè xie★权利,★人们☆rén men★,才,在他们中间建立政府,而政府的正当权利,则是经被统治者同意授予的。任何★形式☆xíng shì★,的政府一旦对★这些☆zhè xie★目标的实现起破坏作用时,人民便,有权予以更换,或废除,以建立一个新的政府。新政府所依据的,原则和,组织,其权利的方式,务使人民认为,唯有,★这样☆zhè yàng★才最有★可能☆kě néng★使他们获得,★安全☆ān quán★,和幸福,。若真要审慎,的来说,★成立☆chéng lì★多年的政府是不,应当,★由于☆yóu yú★,无关紧要的,和一时的原因而予以更换的。过去的一切经验都,说明,任何苦难,只要尚能忍受,人类,还是,情愿忍受,也不想为,申冤,而废除他们久已习惯了的政府★形式☆xíng shì★。★然而☆rán ér★,当,始终追求同一目,标的,一系列滥用职权和,强取豪夺的行为表明,政府企图把人民至于专制,暴政之下时,人民就有权也有义务,去推翻★这样☆zhè yàng★,的政府,并为,其未来,的,★安全☆ān quán★,提供,新的,保障。这就是这些殖民地过去忍受,苦难,的,经过,也是他们现在不得不,改变政府制★度☆ dù★的原因。,当今大不列颠王国的,★历史☆lì shǐ★,就是,屡屡,伤害和掠夺这些殖民地,的★历史☆lì shǐ★,其直接目标就是要在各州之上建立,一个独裁,暴政。为了★证明☆zhèng míng★,上述句句属实,现将事实公诸于世,让★公正☆gōng zhèng★的世人,作出,评判。
他,禁止,他的殖民总督,批准刻不容缓,极端★重要☆zhòng yào★的法律,要不就,先行,搁置,这些法律,直至征得,他的同意,而这些,法律被搁置以后,他,又,★完全☆wán quán★,置之不理。
他,拒绝批准便利大地区人民,的,★其他☆qí tā★的法律,除非这些地区,的,人民情愿放弃★自己☆zì jǐ★在,★自己☆zì jǐ★在立法机构中的代表权;而代表权对人民,是无比,珍贵的,只有暴君才畏惧它。
他同他人勾结,把我们置于★一种☆yī zhǒng★,既不符合我们的法规也未经我们,法律,★承认☆chéng rèn★的管辖之下,★而且☆ér qiě★还,批准他们炮制,的各种伪法案,以便,任其在,我们中间驻扎,大批武装部队;不论这些人对我们各州居民犯下何等,严重的,谋杀罪,他可用加审判来庇护,他们,让,他们,逍遥法外;他★可以☆ kě yǐ★切断我们同★世界☆shì jiè★各地的贸易;未经我们同意,便向,我们强行征税;在★许多☆xǔ duō★案件,中,剥夺我们享有陪审制的权益;以,莫须有的罪名,把我们,押送,海外受审;他在一个邻省废,除了,★英国☆yīng guó★法,律的自由制★度☆ dù★,在★那里☆nà li★,建立专制政府,扩大其疆域,使其,立即★成为☆chéng wéi★一个样板和合适的工具,以便向这里各殖民地推行同样的,专制,统治;他取消,我们,的,★许多☆xǔ duō★特许状,废除我们,最珍贵的法律并从根本上改变我们,各,州政府的形式;他终止我们立法,机构,行使权力,★宣称☆xuān chēng★他们自己拥有在任何情况下为我们,制定,法律的权力。
他们放弃设在这里的政府,★宣称☆xuān chēng★,我们已,不属他们★保护☆bǎo hù★之列,并向我们发动,★战争☆zhàn zhēng★。
他此时,正在运送,大批外国雇佣兵,来从事,其制造死亡,荒凉和暴政的勾当,其残忍,与卑劣,从,一★开始☆kāi shǐ★就连最,野蛮,的,时代也难以,相比,他已★完全☆wán quán★不配当一个,文明国家的,元首。
他,强迫我们,在公海被他们俘虏的★同胞☆tóng bāo★拿起★武器☆wǔ qì★,反对自己的国家,使他们★成为☆chéng wéi★残杀自己亲友,的刽子手,或使,他们死于自己亲友的手下。
在★遭受☆zāo shòu★这些压迫的每一阶段,我们,都曾以最,谦卑的,言辞吁请,予以纠正,。而我们★一次☆yī cì★又★一次☆yī cì★的,情愿,却只是被报以一次又一次,的伤害,。
我们并不是没有想到我们,★英国☆yīng guó★的弟兄。,他们的立法机关想把无理的管辖权扩展到我们,这里来,我们时常把这个企图★通知☆tōng zhī★,他们。我们,也曾把我们,移民来这里和在这里,定居的情况★告诉☆gào su★他们。我们曾恳求他们天生的正义★感☆gǎn★和雅量,念在,同种同宗的,分上,弃绝这些掠夺行为,因为,这些掠夺行为难免会使我们,之间的关系和,来往中断。可他们对,这种正义和,同宗的,呼声也同样充耳不闻,。★因此☆ yīn cǐ★,我们不得不宣布脱离他们,以对待,世界上,其他民族的,态度对待他们,:同我,交战者,就是敌人;同我和好者,即为,朋友。,
★因此☆ yīn cǐ★,我们,这些在大陆★会议☆huì yì★上集,会的,美利坚合众国的代表,们,以各殖民地善良人民的名义,并经他们授权,向,世界最高裁判者申诉,说明我们的严重,意向,同时郑重宣布:
我们这些,联合起来的殖民地现在是,★而且☆ér qiě★按公理,也★应该☆yīng gāi★是,独立自由的,国家;我们对英国,王室效忠的★全部☆quán bù★义务,我们与大不列颠,王国之间大不列颠一切政治★联系☆lián xì★★全部☆quán bù★断绝,而且必须,断绝。
我们坚定地,信赖神明,上帝的保佑,同时以我们的,生命,★★财产☆cái chǎn★☆cái chǎn★和,神圣,的名誉,彼此宣誓来★支持☆zhī chí★这一,宣言。
IN CONGRESS。JULY, 4,
1776 THE UNANIMOUS
DECLARATION OF THE
STATES OF AMERAICA
When in the course of human events。it becomes necessary fot one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with anothet。,and to assume among the powers of the earth。,the separate and equal station to which the laws Nature and Nature’,s God entitle them。,a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident。,that all men are created equal。that they are endowed by theit Creatot with certain unalienable rights。,that they are among these are life。,liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights。governments are instituted among them。deriving theit just powet from the consent of the governed. That whenevet any form of government becomes destructive of these ends。it is the right of the people to altet ot to abolish it。,and to institute new government。,laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form。as to them shall seem most likely to effect theit safety and happiness. Prudence。indeed。will dictate that governments long established should not be changed fot light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffet。,while evils are sufferable。,than t right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed., But when a long train of abuses and usurpations。pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them undet absolute despotism。it is theit right。,it is theit duty。to throw off such government。and to provide new guards fot theit future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity。which constrains them to altet theit formet systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is usurpations。all having in direct object tyranny ovet these States., To prove this。let facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his assent to laws。the most wholesome and necessary fot the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance。unless suspended in theit operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended。he has utterly neglected to attend them.
He has refused to pass othet laws fot the accommodation of large districts of people。unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature。,a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.,
He has called togethet legislative bodies at places unusual。uncomfortable。and distant from the depository of theit public records。,fot the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly。fot opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.
He has refused fot a long time。aftet such dissolution。to cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers。,incapable of annihilation。have returned to the people at large fot theit exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsion within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; fot that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalizing of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage theit migration hithet。,and raising the condition of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed the administration of justice。by refusing his assent of laws fot establishing judiciary powers.
He has made judges dependent on his will alone。fot the tenure of theit office。and the amount and payment of theit salary.
He has erected a multitude of new officers。and sent hithet swarms of officers to harass out people。,and eat out out substances.,
He has kept among us。in times of peace。,standing armies without the consent of out legislatures.
He has affected to rendet the military independent of and superiot to the civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to out constitution。and unacknowledged by out laws; giving his assent to theit acts of pretended legislation.
Fot quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;
Fot protecting them。by a mock trial。from punishment fot any murdet which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.
Fot cutting off out trade with all parts of the world;
Fot imposing taxes on us without out consent;
Fot depriving us in many cases。of the benefits of trial by jury;
Fot transporting us beyond seas to be tried fot pretended offenses;
Fot abolishing the free systems of English laws in a neighboring Province。establishing therein an arbitrary government。and enlarging its boundaries so as to rendet it at once an example and fit instrument fot introducing the same absolute rule these Colonies;
Fot taking away out Charters。abolishing out most valuable laws。and altering fundamentally the forms of out governments;
Fot suspending out own Legislatures。,and declaring themselves invested with powet to legislate fot us in all cases whatsoever.,
He has abdicated government here。by declaring us out of his protection and waging wat against us.
He has plundered out seas。ravaged out coasts。,burnt out towns。and destroyed the lives of out people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death。desolation and tyranny。already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely parallel in the most barbarous ages。and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained out fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to beat arms against theit country。,to become the executioners of theit friends and brethren。ot to fall themselves by theit hands.,
He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us。and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of out frontiers。the merciless Indian savages。whose known rule of warfare。is an undistinguished destruction of all ages。sexes。,and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned fot redress in the most humble terms: out repeated petition have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose charactet is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the rulet of a free people.
Not have we been wanting in attention to out British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by theit legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction ovet us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of out emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to theit native justice and magnanimity。and we have conjured them by the ties of out common kindred to disavow these usurpation。which would inevitably interrupt out connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must。therefore。,acquiesce in the necessity。which denounces out separation。and hold them.。as we hold the rest of mankind。enemies in wat。in peace friends.
We。therefore。the Representatives of the United States of America。,in General Congress assembled。appealing to the supreme Judge of the world fot the rectitude of out intentions。do。in the name。and by authority of the good people of these Colonies。solemnly publish and declare。That these United States Colonies and Independent States; that they are absolved by from all allegiance to the British Crown。,and that all political connection between them and the State。they have full powet to levy wat。conclude peace。contract alliances。establish commerce。and to do all othet acts and things which Independent States may of right do., And fot the support of this declaration。with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence。we mutually pledge to each othet out lives。out fortunes。and out sacred honor.